Neuromuscular Scoliosis is due to loss of control of the nerves or muscles that support the spine.
The most common causes of this type of Scoliosis are cerebral palsy & muscular dystrophy.
Neuromuscular Scoliosis may result from asymmetric innervation or unbalanced muscular function, most commonly Cerebral Palsy.
Abnormal curvatures may also occur after traumatic paraplegia or quadriplegia, spinal muscular atrophy, Friedreich's ataxia, familial dysautonomia, hypertrophic interstitial polyneuritis and peroneal muscular atrophy. Although pelvic obliquity is characteristic, in some cases Neuromuscular Scoliosis may be indistinguishable from Idiopathic Scoliosis.
The Scoliosis associated with neurofibromatosis has classically been described as one with sharp angulation and associated Kyphosis. Paravertebral soft tissue mass, deformed transverse processes, enlarged vertebral foramina, marked rotation of the spinal curvature, and a coarsened and sclerotic trabecular pattern are common.